Wireless sensor networks are extensively studied and enormous research is going on through the last few years. Wireless sensor networks consists of small nodes i.e., stationary or mobile sensor nodes which can sense, compute, store and as well as built with wireless communication capabilities. The wireless sensor networks are limited to the factors such as memory, power consumption, coverage, and lifetime. Plenty of research is currently going on the challenges of wireless sensor networks. The area of research includes protocols, mobility, security, power management, and privacy. Sensor networks are used in many applications such as Environmental Monitoring, Habitat Monitoring, Smart Homes, High-Confidence Transport and Asset Tracking, Health Care, Energy Saving Smart Grids, Military Applications. Depending on the application requirements, various architectures and sensor deployment strategies have been developed for wireless sensor networks. The coverage problem is the one which address a crucial issue; a high coverage rate ensures a high Quality of Service (QOS) and vice-versa. A large extent of wireless sensor networks, coverage depends on the construction of topology in wireless sensor networks. A good deployment scheme and an optimized routing protocol strategy iv produces good coverage, reduced power consumption, and also extend the life time of the sensor nodes. Survey is carried on existing sensor network deployment algorithms. Further the research is carried on studying and implementing various topology construction and topology maintenance protocols in order to develop an optimized framework, by improving coverage, reducing energy consumption and increasing network lifetime. The process of testing and implementing of topology control and topology construction protocols is done using Atarraya, a discrete-event simulation tool. The proposed study will offer all the possible optimized strategies with respect to coverage, energy consumption and lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.
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